Often interfaces with cladding, lifts, stairs and other key components are not known at the tendering stage, and so it is accepted that some level of design development is required under the contract. The concept of off-site manufacture is now well established, which includes the use of a wide range of pre fabricated components, including large cladding panels , packaged services, room and toilet modules , lifts and stairs, etc.
As a material, steel is strong , versatile and infinitely recyclable making it a highly sustainable construction material. As a construction system, steel is lightweight, generates little waste , is fast, safe and cost effective and can be extended or adapted easily. Sustainability considerations pervade the design and construction process. Sustainability is concerned not only with the operation of the completed building as defined in sustainability ratings, such as BREEAM , but also with the manufacturing and construction process.
It is widely recognised that the off-site nature of steel construction reduces site impacts by its shorter construction programme , and leads to fewer site deliveries, etc. Importantly steel continues to enable designers to push their limits and deliver iconic buildings that showcase stunning architecture.
The Target Zero design guides provide guidance on the design and construction of sustainable, low and zero carbon buildings in the UK. Main articles: The case for steel , Cost of structural steelwork , Cost planning through design stages.
The comparative cost of structural steel construction with its main competitor, reinforced concrete, is dependent on taking a holistic view of the financial benefits offered by the speed of construction , the lighter weight and also the longer spans that are offered by using steel. In comparative cost studies of multi-storey buildings, the structural cost of steel and concrete is similar, but the other value benefits offered by steel construction in financial terms, lead to significant savings to the overall project.
These additional savings are:. Further savings arise due to reduced site waste , less site accommodation and lower costs as a result of the fewer workers on site, and reduced site operations compared to reinforced concrete construction. Indicative structural costs are shown.
Therefore small differences in the cost of the structural solutions are much less important than the wider financial benefits offered by steel construction. Main articles: Fire and steel construction , Corrosion protection , Acoustics , Floor vibrations. Fire safety is an important aspect of the design process and covers both active and passive fire protection systems. Fire protection to structural steelwork takes six generic forms, many of which permit the steelwork members to be visually exposed:.
The use of intumescent coatings and concrete filled hollow sections provide the greatest opportunity for architectural expression. Fire engineering is a widely used technique, where fire severity can be predicted based on the fire load, ventilation, fire compartmentation and smoke control criteria. Fire engineering is often used in the design of public spaces, such as airport terminals, which have a low fire load and good means of escape.
Intumescent coatings are increasingly used to protect steelwork, and off site application of these coatings is now common for up to 90 minutes fire resistance. Concrete is also used to protect steelwork, and common examples are slim floor beams , which are partially encased in the floor slab, and also concrete filled tubular columns , which are used for appearance and increased load resistance. Examples of the use of partial and full concrete encasement to an H profile and concrete-filled circular hollow sections are shown.
Partially encased steel columns generally achieve 60 minutes fire resistance , and concrete filled sections achieve up to minutes fire resistance. Fully encased steel sections achieve longer fire resistance periods. Intumescent coatings are classified as thin film when up to 2 mm thick and thick film for coating thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm. Coatings of up to 2 mm thick can be applied off-site in the factory with a high level of quality control on the thickness of intumescent coating. This is commonly used for long span beams requiring up to 90 minutes fire resistance , as shown.
A second layer of intumescent coating can also be applied on-site for longer fire resistance periods. Spray and board materials rely on their low thermal conductivity and resistance to damage in fire. Spray materials are often cementitious-based and so can be thicker than boards. Boards are often in the form of plasterboard with glass fibres, calcium silicate or compressed mineral wool. An example of two types of board fire protection to beams and columns is shown right. The table presents typical thicknesses of cementitious spray and rigid board fire protection to a x UC column assuming an effective height of 3.
Special corrosion protection systems may be required for certain types of applications, such as swimming pools. Galvanized steel is used for secondary steel components, such as floor decking , roof purlins and infill walling and is corrosion resistant in internal applications. In addition, plastic coated steel decking for composite flooring applications, such as car parks or buildings exposed to moisture is available. Steel composite floors possess excellent acoustic insulation to airborne and impact sound transmission and have achieved the status of a Robust Standard Detail.
Light steel separating walls can also be designed to achieve high levels of acoustic performance.
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Increasingly, reduction of external noise is important in city centre projects and light steel infill walls can provide the required insulation levels. Control of floor vibrations became an issue in lightweight, open plan floors. The floor system includes all secondary and primary beams and also the floor slab which is very stiff in relation to the beams. The SCI guidance P also demonstrated that long-span floors are less sensitive to occupant induced vibration effects than shorter span floors due to the higher effective area and weight of the floor that is mobilised.
Monolithic two way spanning shallow floor systems , also possess excellent stiffness and low sensitivity to vibrations, so much so that this type of construction is often used in hospitals to satisfy even stricter vibration criteria. For further guidance on floor vibrations, see Steel Construction: Floor Vibration , and a useful web-based Floor response calculator is also available to swiftly evaluate the vibration response of floors.
Main articles: Fabrication , Construction. Steelwork fabrication and installation are specialist tasks; the main processes involved are outlined below.
Steelwork fabrication processes include:. Construction concerns on-site processes, including any temporary works that may be required to facilitate the erection of the structural steelwork. In the context of steelwork this involves:. The following is a glossary of terms relating to structural engineering and structural steelwork. Navigation menu Home. Share Tweet. Tools Printable version. From SteelConstruction. Jump to: navigation , search.
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Information required at various stages in the design process. The Cardington frame after the office fire test. Composite columns with inherent fire resistance. Thin film intumescent coating applied to cellular beams Image courtesy of Sherwin-Williams Protective and Marine Coatings.
The effects of loads and moments on structures are determined through structural analysis. A steel structure is composed of structural members that are made of steel , usually with standard cross-sectional profiles and standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties.
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The depth of steel beams used in the construction of bridges is usually governed by the maximum moment, and the cross section is then verified for shear strength near supports and lateral torsional buckling by determining the distance between transverse members connecting adjacent beams. Steel column members must be verified as adequate to prevent buckling after axial and moment requirements are met. Both use a strength, or ultimate level design approach.
Special Provisions exist for accounting flood loads and atmospheric loads i. Allowable Strength Design still uses a strength, or ultimate level, design approach. For the wind consideration, the ASCE allows a "position correction factor" which turns the coefficient of wind action to 1. Structural engineers use this manual in analyzing, and designing various steel structures. Some of the chapters of the book are as follows. CISC is a national industry organization representing the structural steel, open-web steel joist and steel plate fabrication industries in Canada.
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