In the latter case, particles interact via long-range screened Coulomb forces and their interaction energy dominates their average kinetic energy. The challenges posed by strongly coupled Coulomb systems are not unlike those encountered with dense neutral fluids.

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The foundation of modern kinetic theory dates back to when Boltzmann published his famous equation for the single-particle distribution function for dilute gases. The solution of the Boltzmann equation, derived independently by Chapman and Enskog around , achieved two basic goals of kinetic theory: it i established the connection between the microscopic dynamics and the macroscopic equations of hydrodynamics and ii provided explicit expressions for the transport coefficients in terms of the molecular parameters.

Starting with the Liouville equation, a method was worked out, notably by Bogolyubov, Choh and Uhlenbeck, Green and Cohen and others, which amounts to a systematic inclusion of many-body collisions through a density expansion similar to the virial expansion for computing equilibrium properties of dense gases.

In the mid 60s, it was realized that the density expansion of the collision operator is plagued by divergences. Those divergences are not unlike those encountered in quantum field theories. Those findings, together with others permitted by the advent of computer simulations, shifted attention towards the development of a renormalization regularization procedure, which would encompass the theoretical divergences and take proper account of the correlated collisions, whereby particles interact via the effective renormalized potential that integrates the average effects of the medium on the bare interactions.

A similar result was independently performed by the Polish physicist Marian Smoluchowski, who published his work in Together, these applications of kinetic theory went a long way to support the idea that liquids and gases and, likely, also solids are composed of tiny particles.

The kinetic theory involves a number of assumptions that focus on being able to talk about an ideal gas. The result of these assumptions is that you have a gas within a container that moves around randomly within the container.

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When particles of the gas collide with the side of the container, they bounce off the side of the container in a perfectly elastic collision, which means that if they strike at a degree angle, they'll bounce off at a degree angle. The component of their velocity perpendicular to the side of the container changes direction but retains the same magnitude.

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The kinetic theory of gases is significant, in that the set of assumptions above lead us to derive the ideal gas law, or ideal gas equation, that relates the pressure p , volume V , and temperature T , in terms of the Boltzmann constant k and the number of molecules N.

The resulting ideal gas equation is:.

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## Kinetic Theory of Gases and Plasmas | P. P. J. M. Schram | Springer

Specifically, one implication of this is that their size is extremely small in comparison to the average distance between particles. Publications Pages Publications Pages.

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## Micro, kinetic and fluid descriptions—Hierarchy of plasma descriptions

Print Save Cite Email Share. Search within book. Email Address. Library Card. Hydrodynamics and transport 3 Collective dynamics in plasmas—II. Some basic fluid modes 4 Collective dynamics in plasmas—III. Collisionless kinetic effects 5 Collisions and collisional transport—I. Particle collisions 6 Collisions and collisional transport—II.